Morten Linderud

F/OSS Developer, Arch Linux trusted user and security team.

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Kubernetes in Arch Linux
Dec 23, 2020
5 minutes read

Arch Linux got kubernetes packaged into the [community] repository the past week with the hard work of David Runge. I contribute to testing the packages so I thought it would be interesting to write up quickly the testing that was done. Originally I did the testing with docker but with the dockershim deprecation I rewrote the blog to utilize containerd instead.

David has reworked the kubernetes archwiki article as well. It currently doesn’t cover all use cases and contributions welcome. I will try cover the containerd parts of this page to the wiki.

Our goal in this post is to simply setup a one node “cluster” and test some basic functionality. kubeadm is going to be used for bootstrapping the cluster as it is an easy way to get started.

For the testing portion of kubernetes I utilized lxd as it’s a neat interface for managing virtual machines. They also provide Arch Linux images which makes things fairly easy to setup.

# lxc launch images:archlinux/current arch-vm-kubernetes-test --vm
# lxc exec arch-vm-kubernetes-test bash

This sets up an Arch Linux virtual machine we will setup kubernetes with. Next up we need to install the packges we will be using to setup kubernetes.

# pacman -S kubernetes-control-plane 
# pacman -S containerd kubeadm kubectl

We have split up the kubernetes package in different components and then construced 3 package groups for users. kubernetes-control-plane for the control planes/master nodes. kubernetes-node for worker nodes, and then kubernetes-tools for the tools like kubectl. We are also fetching containerd for the container runtime.

Setup of the different container runtimes is explained at the container runtimes webpage. However, there are a few distro specifics which could be nice to document on the archwiki. Next part of the setup is to ensure the modules and kernel parameters are correct.

# cat <<EOF | tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf
br_netfilter
EOF
# modprobe br_netfilter
# cat <<EOF | tee /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables  = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward                 = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
EOF
# sysctl --system
# systemctl start containerd

I have no clue why they br_netfilter are needed, but I guess docker solves this itself where as containerd does not. It should be noted we don’t setup the overlay module as the containerd service inserts it on its own. Rest of it is fairly straight forward and verbatim from the kubernetes documentation.

# kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=192.168.0.0/16 \
	--upload-certs --ignore-preflight-errors=NumCPU,Mem
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.19.4
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[[...SNIP...]]
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!
[[...SNIP...]]

kubeadm sets up the kubernetes cluster. The pod network CIRD defines the IP range the pods (read containers) are going to be using inside the cluster. Because we are using the default lxd containers we need to ignore a few limits kubernetes imposes on us. It expects more then 1 CPU code, and more then 1GB RAM. However this doesn’t matter for the fairly small workload we have for the testing.

In a real cluster you would hopefully have larger nodes!

Once the cluster has initialized we can copy the admin.conf and query for the cluster nodes.

# mkdir ~/.kube
# cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf ~/.kube/config
# kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS      ROLES    AGE   VERSION
archlinux   NotReady    master   18m   v1.20.0

Currently it says NotReady which is because there is no network configured on the cluster. We will untaint the master node, which allows us to deploy pods on the master, and then setup some network.

# kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
node/archlinux untainted

We will be using kube-router for the networking portion as it is what I have been using personally, and it has been fairly straight forward to setup.

It can be fetched from their github repository which has the RBAC support kubeadm setup. We can just apply this deployment fairly easily. https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cloudnativelabs/kube-router/v1.1.0/daemonset/kubeadm-kuberouter.yaml

# kubectl apply -f kubeadm-kuberouter.yaml
# kubectl get pods -A
NAMESPACE     NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS
kube-system   coredns-f9fd979d6-2wp2x             1/1     Running   0
kube-system   coredns-f9fd979d6-522nz             1/1     Running   0
kube-system   etcd-archlinux                      1/1     Running   0
kube-system   kube-apiserver-archlinux            1/1     Running   0
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-archlinux   1/1     Running   0
kube-system   kube-proxy-sjxvw                    1/1     Running   0
kube-system   kube-router-8fq2m                   1/1     Running   0
kube-system   kube-scheduler-archlinux            1/1     Running   0
# kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS  ROLES    AGE   VERSION
archlinux   Ready   master   20m   v1.20.0

Now our cluster is ready for a workload! Personally I have sometimes queried the docker for the running containerd, but we are currently using containerd which provides ctr for interacting with the containers. It organizes all pods related to kubernetes inside a k8s.io namespace, where you can list the pods.

# ctr -n k8s.io c list
CONTAINER  IMAGE                                         RUNTIME             
0cf8a9c17  docker.io/cloudnativelabs/kube-router:latest  io.containerd.runc.v2
2bda5427a  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
4dbdaea0d  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
5430728fc  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
546633029  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
5593c7f09  k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.20.0                 io.containerd.runc.v2
7f4dd2ff4  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
96dd370ec  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
aab09f1e1  docker.io/cloudnativelabs/kube-router:latest  io.containerd.runc.v2
aba203048  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2                          io.containerd.runc.v2
b1bd5082a  sha256:0369cf4303ffdb467dc219990960a9baa8...  io.containerd.runc.v2
dc02359d9  k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.7.0                      io.containerd.runc.v2
e42de4f65  k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.20.0    io.containerd.runc.v2
fc943a990  k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.20.0             io.containerd.runc.v2
fe49fbf3f  k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.20.0             io.containerd.runc.v2

Now we have the basics cluster working. We will add an deployment on this cluster and expose it through a load balancer. It’s

The steps are taken from the “create a deployment” page in the kubernetes documentation.

# kubectl create deployment hello-node --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10
# kubectl expose deployment hello-node --type=LoadBalancer --port=8080
service/hello-node exposed
# kubectl get services
NAME         TYPE           CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
hello-node   LoadBalancer   10.96.177.87   <pending>     8080:31569/TCP   5s
kubernetes   ClusterIP      10.96.0.1      <none>        443/TCP          22m
# curl 10.96.177.87:8080

Hostname: hello-node-59bffcc9fd-hs7mk

Pod Information:
	-no pod information available-

Server values:
	server_version=nginx: 1.13.3 - lua: 10008

Request Information:
	client_address=192.168.0.1
	method=GET
	real path=/
	query=
	request_version=1.1
	request_scheme=http
	request_uri=http://10.96.177.87:8080/

Request Headers:
	accept=*/*
	host=10.96.177.87:8080
	user-agent=curl/7.73.0

Request Body:
	-no body in request-

This shows an fairly simple setup with one kubernetes node running a service and a pod. It can be expanded upon, but for the sake of keeping this short this works as an introduction I reckon.

Hopefully this was as a simple introduction to kubernetes on Arch Linux!


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